ISTE QUESTION 2: Given that authentic learning experiences can be powerful and lifelong, how can educators put technology into the hands of the students to personalize their knowledge and demonstrate their understanding; further, how can students use technology for self-assessment (formative or summative)?
I started my question this week with the assumption that self-assessment was valid and effective in the practice of teaching. What I found, to support that assessment was valid, was a study conducted by de la Fuente (2014); a link to the study can be found at http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/command/detail?sid=cd7a458d-96f3-4e94-a3d7-2e1c3fc46da9%40sessionmgr198&vid=26&hid=125. This study compared two types of student assessment in a secondary language classroom. The scenario of students working independently to memorize words and phrases is not too different from a common scenario in the theatre arts classroom. In my work, I often give students time to work on memorizing their lines. The study placed one group of students in a position of control over their self-assessment with mobile assisted language learning (MALL). The second group surrendered all power to the instructor with an assessment that was instructor manipulated language learning (IMLL). The study observed the comprehension of the students following the assessments. Students in the MALL group demonstrated significantly higher levels of comprehension in multiple categories (de la Furente, 2014). When comprehension is the central task, self-assessment is more effective than instructor directed assessment.
Second, I attempted to answer the more difficult question of how to implement self-assessment through technology. A second study was found to answer this question (Mordis and Economides, 2012); the link is provided here http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=24&sid=cd7a458d-96f3-4e94-a3d7-2e1c3fc46da9%40sessionmgr198&hid=125. Mordis and Economides (2012) found that during a self assessment test the learner was able to reach an optimal emotional state in relationship to the learning content by giving students the reward of applause after correct responses.
Students took a multiple choice question test and the levels of anxiety were observed and measured. Results showed that male students not receiving applause have a significantly high state of anxiety after the test than female students not receiving the applause (Mordis and Economides, 2012). Further, males that received applause after correct responses were significantly less anxious than females in the same category. In other words, males need more external positive motivation to reduce their anxiety.
Mordis and Economides (2012) conclude that affective feedback during self-assessment is only one tool that can be used; this supportive feedback can have positive or negative outcomes that may fall along gender lines. Lastly, affective teaching must embed self-assessment within the educational context (Mordis and Economides, 2012).
In my classroom, I have students give a “clap of respect” to performers. The clap does not signal success or failure (as the second study did for success). However, this did highlight renewed awareness that every student reacts differently to praise.
What really interested me this week was the idea of self-assessment through technology in an arts classroom. Lida Enche, provided a reference to the tool that could combine my public presentations with technology. By utilizing a document camera, I could have students highlight their own work (e.g. notes they made on their script) and evaluate their progress for the class. The resource provided by Enche (http://www.theartofed.com/2014/09/01/15-fabulous-ways-to-utilize-a-document-camera-in-the-art-room) does not address the concept of self-assessment, however it does lead one to extend ones thinking about how to use the document camera.
de la Fuente, M. J. (2014). Learners' Attention to Input during Focus on Form Listening Tasks: The Role of Mobile Technology in the Second Language Classroom. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 27(3), 261-276.
Moridis, C. N., & Economides, A. A. (2012). Applause as an Achievement-Based Reward during a Computerised Self-Assessment Test. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 43(3), 489-504.